Psychology (English: psychology) is a science that studies human beings and their internal psychological processes, mental functions, and external behaviours. It attempts to use scientific methods to explain human behaviour and explore human psychological processes. It is a theoretical subject and also An applied subject, including two major fields: theoretical psychology and applied psychology.
Psychology research involves many fields such as consciousness, perception, perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behaviour, and interpersonal relationships, and affects the development of other disciplines, such as education, management, communication, sociology, economics, psychiatry, Statistics, and literature, etc. On the one hand, psychology tries to explain the basic behaviours and mental functions of individuals with the operation of the brain. At the same time, psychology also tries to explain the role of individual mental functions in social behaviour and social dynamics. The purpose of psychologists in basic research is to describe, explain, predict and control behaviour. Applied Psychology. A house there is a fifth one purpose – to improve the quality of human life. These goals form the basis of a career in psychology.
In order to study human behavior, early psychologists conducted cruel experiments on animals to speculate on the impact of the environment, physiology (such as brain damage, whether exercise can increase dopamine, etc.) and some specific factors on humans. This experimental method has always been discussed and controversial. However, with the advancement of technology, people use nuclear magnetic resonance, tomography, and more mature questionnaire surveys to study human psychology. Sometimes there are patients with partial brain damage. Psychologists also observe the brain activity of these people to determine the function of each part of the brain.
In ancient Greek, psychology is composed of ” soul ” ( ψυχή ) and “research” ( λόγος ).
Source “psychology” Translation of translation through history and psychology-related research, the Chinese Ming Dynasty and prove Mind, Song Science, and Neo- Confucianism went to Japan to have a direct relationship.
In 1890, William James defined psychology as “the science of mental life, including psychological phenomena and mental states.” This definition has been widely circulated for decades. However, this meaning has been questioned by some radical behaviourists, especially those such as John B. Watson. Watson defined psychology in his 1913 manifesto as obtaining information useful for controlling behaviour. Likewise, since James defined it, the term has more strongly implied the technique of scientific experiments.
- Positive psychology
- Transpersonal psychology
- School psychology
- Child psychology
- Community psychology
- Health psychology
Psychology encompasses a wide range of research fields and uses many different methods to deal with mental processes and behaviours. Psychology is mainly divided into two major areas: theoretical psychology and applied psychology, which can be divided into many sub-fields, such as educational psychology, abnormal psychology, and management psychology.
- Theoretical psychology: As opposed to applied psychology, including abnormal psychology, physiological psychology, cognitive psychology, comparative psychology, developmental psychology, health psychology, personality psychology, social psychology, etc. for academic research purposes.
- Evolutionary psychology: It is an attempt to integrate all psychology, providing a concise way to explain various phenomena and theories observed in various psychology.
- Abnormal psychology: It is the study of abnormal behaviour to describe, predict, explain and correct abnormal patterns of functions. The study of abnormal psychology is applied to clinical psychology to treat patients with mental illness.
- Physiological psychology: Research based on the structure of physiological composition, which mainly includes the human brain.
- Cognitive psychology: The so-called cognition refers to various mental activities in the process of acquiring knowledge, mainly including perception, memory, speech, thinking, etc., which is usually the so-called cognitive process.
- Positive psychology: Positive psychology finds its roots in humanistic psychology that focused on happiness and satisfaction in the 20th century.
- Comparative psychology: It is a branch of psychology that studies the basic theory of animal behaviour evolution and various behavioural characteristics of animals at different levels of evolution. It is of great significance to philosophical epistemology. Comparative psychology research can also provide basic scientific knowledge of animal behaviour evolution for production practice and biomedical research.
- Developmental psychology: Mainly studies the process of human personality development from birth to death. Ericson divides personality development into 8 stages and believes that people at each stage will face different obstacles to personality development, such as handling It can develop smoothly if it is good. If it is not handled well, it will cause anxiety and various problems.
- Personality Psychology: The study of patterns of behaviour, thinking, and emotions, usually called individual personality.
- Handwriting Psychology: A knowledge system that studies the relationship between handwriting characteristics and psychological laws and personality traits. It is also called handwriting science, handwriting evaluation, handwriting analysis, etc.
- Quantitative psychology: the application of mathematical models and statistical models in psychological research, and the use of statistical methods to analyze and interpret behavioural data.
- Psychological statistics: It is the theory and technique of psychological measurement of knowledge, ability, attitude and personality characteristics in psychology, mainly related to education, personality and clinical psychology. Mathematical psychology is closely related to experiment, cognition and physiological psychology.
- Social Psychology: A scientific study that explores how social and cognitive processes have an effect on how individuals perceive others, influence others, and contact others. Social science-based on psychology and sociology related theories.
- Clinical Psychology: It is a sub-discipline of psychology that discusses abnormal human behaviours and explores the arguments, evaluation, classification, treatment, prevention, and scientific research of these behaviours through clinical observation.
- Educational Psychology: To study how humans learn in educational contexts, the effects of educational intervention, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of the school as an organization. The research results of child psychologists such as Levi Vygotsky, Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner have had a significant impact on teaching methods and educational practice.
- Health Psychology: It is the application of psychological theory and research in the fields of health, disease and health care. However, clinical psychology focuses on mental health and neurological diseases, while health psychology focuses on healthy behaviours on a larger scale, including healthy eating, doctor-patient relationships, and patients’ understanding of health knowledge.
- Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Mainly studies organizational psychology, with the purpose of improving utilization and management, and achieving organizational goals.
- School Psychology: The main research is the psychology and laws of students in school learning and teacher teaching. This subject has significant effects on solving learning problems and educational difficulties.
- Community Psychology: It mainly focuses on the interrelationship between individuals, communities and society, and through cooperative research and action, as well as interventions such as prevention, empowerment, and social change, effectively enhance personal comfort, happiness and quality of life.
- Child Psychology: It focuses on children’s psychology, cognitive development and growth, and discusses how to deal with children with mental disorders based on theories.
- Transpersonal Psychology: Specializes in spiritual research across the self-level, psychology across the personal field, and the spiritual level of human nature.